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Indus Valley Civilization : GS Notes



Indus Valley Civilization
·         Discovered in 1921
·         Belonged to the bronze age
·         An area of about 1.3 mn sq km
·         Existed between 3300-1600 BC in three phases: early, mature and late phases
·         Sites
Early (pre-Harappan)
Mature (Harappan)
Late phase (post-urban)

Harappa


Mohenjodaro


Chanhu-daro


Lothal

Kalibangan
Kalibangan

Banawali
Banawali (Hissar)


Sutkagendor (Pakistan)


Sukotada (Gujarat)

Dholavira (Kutch)
Dholavira
Dholavira
Rakhigarhi (Ghaggar)
Rakhigarhi
Rakhigarhi


Bhagwanpura


Manda (Jammu); Chandigarh, Shangol (Punjab); Daulatpur, Mitthal (Haryana); Alamgirpur. Hulas (West UP)

Site
Remarkable Feature
Sutkagendor – Surkotada
Marked by a citadel
Mohenjo-daro
Great Bath;
Large granary
Impressive drainage system
Piece of woven cotton
Mother Goddess
Seal of pashu-pati
Kalibangan
Grain and plough

·         Town planning
o   Grid system
·         The Indus people were the earliest to produce cotton

Aryans

Male dominated
Pastoral
Horse was a significant animal
Rig veda – Consists of 10 mandalas (books): Book 1 and 10 are relatively new
Earliest specimen of Indo-European language: 2200 BC inscription in Iran. Later in the Hittite inscriptions in Anatolia
1500 BC came to India
Sindhu is the river par excellence for them
Saraswati is the best of the rivers in Rig Veda
Panchajana – five tribes into which Aryans were divided
Used ploughshare
Land did not form a well-established type of private property
Metal working was known
Rajan – king
Samiti, sabha, vidatha,gana  – tribal assembly

Jainism


24 tirthankaras.
First: Rishab Dev
23rd: Parshavnath
Mahavir (599 BC – 527 BC) or (540 BC – 468 BC)
In Kundagrama near Vaishali
Father – Siddartha (Jnatrika clan)
Mother – Trishala (sister of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka)
Died at Pavapuri near Rajgir
Five doctrines: Do not – violence, steal, lie, acquire property and do observe brahmacharya
Did not condemn the varna system
Triratna: right knowledge, right faith, right action
Spread to Kalinga in first century BC. King Kharavela
Used Prakrit language. Literature written in Ardhamagadhi
Prepared the grammar of Apabhramsha
Contributed to the growth of Kannada

Buddhism


563 – 483 BC – Lumbini, Kapilavastu, Nepal. Shakya family.
Suddhodan and Mahamaya
Death: Kushinagar (Kasia in Deoria distt of UP)
Eight-fold path (for end of misery)
1.       Right observation
2.       Right determination
3.       Right speech
4.       Right action
5.       Right livelihood
6.       Right exercise
7.       Right memory
8.       Right meditation
Do not
1.       Covet other’s property
2.       Commit violence
3.       Lie
4.       Use intoxicants
5.       Indulge in corrupt practices
No god or atman exists
Used Pali
Main elements of Buddhism: Buddha, Sangha, Dhamma
Brahamana ruler Pashyamitra Shunga persecuted the Buddhists
Mihirakula (Huna king) killed Buddhists
Buddhist text: Suttanipata
Gandhara Art
First human statues worshipped
Barabar hills: Caves for monks





Territorial States


Kingdoms and Capitals
Kingdom
 Capital
Kapilavastu
Piprahwa
Lichchhavis
Vaishali
Mahajanpadas

Anga
Champa
Kashi
Varanasi
Koshala
Shravasti
Mallas
Kushinara
Vatsa/Vamsa
Kaushambi
Avanti
Ujjain (North)/ Mahishamati (South)
Magadha
Rajgir (Girivraja)
Chedi/Cheti

Kuru

Panchala

Matsya

Surasena
Mathura
Ashmaka

Gandhara

Kamboja

Vriji/Vajji
Mithila


Satvanahanas
Paithan
Pandya
Madurai
Chola
Puhar (kaveripattanam)
Chalyukyas
Badami (Bijapur)
Pallavas
Kanchi
Kadambas
Vijayanti
Gangas
Kolar

First Magadhan Empire
Dyansty
Ruler
Remark
Haryanka
Bimbisara
Contemporary of Buddha

Ajatsatru


Udayin
Built fort on the confluence of Ganga and Son at Patna
Shishunagas
-
Destroyed the power of Avanti
Nandas (most powerful rulers of Magadha)
Mahapadma Nanda


Mauryas (Patliputra)


Mauryas had a very elaborate bureaucracy
Chandragupta Maurya
Megasthenes visited during his time

Bindusara
Links with Greek princes

Ashoka
Buddhism
Shunga



Pushyamitra Shunga
Destroyed the Mauryan empire. Killed Maurya king Brihadratha




Balisadhaka – tax collectors during the times of Nandas
Shaulkiki or shulkadhyakshas were also toll collectors
Shakyas and Lichchhavis were republics

Literature
Book
Author/Language
Remark
Digha Nikaya
Pali
Buddhist text

North-West India

Menander (Milinda) was the most famous Indo-Greek ruler.
·         His capital at Sakala (Sialkot)
·         Converted to Buddhism by Nagasena (Nagarjuna)
Shakas
·         Succeeded the Greeks in North West
·         Rudradaman I : most famous ruler
o   He issued first ever long inscription in chaste Sanskrit
Parthians
·         Followed Shakas
·         Famous king: Gondophernes
o   St. Thomas came during his reign
Kushans
·         Aka Yuechis or Tocharians
·         Kadphises was the first king
·         Kanishka is the most famous ruler
o   Started the Shaka era in 78 AD
o   Held the Buddhist council in Kashmir where the doctrines of Mahayana form were finalized
o   Patronized Ashvaghosa
·         Kushan inscriptions and coins found at Toprak Kala in Khorezm
·         Kushanas were the first rulers to issue gold coins on a large scale
·         Introduced the Satrap system of government
·         They controlled the Silk Route
·         Worshipped both Shiva and Buddha. Some worshipped Vishnu too.
·         Kanishka built a large number  of Stupas

Greek ambassador Heliodorus set up a piller in honor of Vasudeva near Vidisa.
Appointed governors called strategos

Deccan

Satavahanas
·         Succeeded Mauryas in Deccan
·         Brahmana rulers
·         Gautamiputra Satkarni (AD 106-130)
·         Vashishthiputra Pulimayi: Capital at Paithan
·         Started the practice of granting tax-free villages to Brahmanas and Buddhist Monks
·         Yajna Sri Satakarni
·         Chaityas (Buddhist temples) and Viharas (monastaries) were constructed during their times
o   Most famous Chaitya at Karle in Deccan
·         Show trace of matrilineal social structure
·         Administration
o   Ahara – district
o   Officials – amatyas or mahamatras
o   Gaulmika – head of a small military regiment and look after administration in rural areas
o   Three grades of feudatories: raja, mahabhoja, senapati
o   Language: Prakrit

South

Pandya
·         Sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augustus
Chola
·         Elara conquered Sri Lanka
·         Karikala founded Puhar aka Kaveripatnam which was their capital
Cheras
·         Kerala and parts of TN
·         Senguttavan is the greatest king
·         Roman influence: Muziris. Also built a temple of Augustus
Vellalas – rich peasants
Arasar – ruling class
Pariyars – agricultural labourers
Shrent – artisan guilds
Chalukyas
·         Badami (Bijapur)
·         Pulakesin II was the important ruler
·         Court poet Ravikirti wrote his eulogy in the Aihole inscription
Pallavas
·         They succeeded the Ikshvakus
·         Kanchipuram was their capital
·         Came in conflict with kadambas
o   Mayurasharman had founded the Kadamba kingdom (Capital: Vijayanti/Banavasi)
·         Nasrimhavarman occupied the Chalukya capital Vatapi in 642 AD
o   Assumed the title of Vatapikonda
·         Constructed a number of temples
·         Ratha temples at Mahabs built by Narsimhavarman who founded Mahabs
·         Pattadakal: Papanatha temple and Virupaksha temple
·         Kailashnath temple at Kanchi
One of the major revolt in the south was the Kalabhras revolt. It was so widespread that it could be put down only through the joint  efforts of the Pandyas, the Pallavas and the Chalukyas
Three types of villages: Ur (commoners), Sabha (Brahmans), Nagaram (traders etc)

Foreign Invasions



Major events
326-325 BC
Alexander’s invasion

Literature
Book
Author
Mudrarakshasa (play)
Vishakhadatta
Indika
Megasthenes
Milind Panho
Buddhist literature of questions of Manender to Nagarjuna
Buddhacharita
Ashvaghosha
Saundarananda (Sanskrit kavya)
Ashvaghosha
Mahavastu (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit)

Divyavandan (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit)

Kamsutra
Vatsyayana
Charaksamhita
Charaka
Gathasaptasatti (Prakrit book)
Hala (Satavahana king)
Tolkkappiyam (deals with grammar and poetics)

Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are Tamil epics
<Ilango Adigal? (silappadikaram)>
Natural History (Latin)
Pliny (Roman writer)
Mrichchhakatika
Shudraka
Abhijnanashakuntalam
Kalidasa
Amarakosha
Amarasimha
Romaka Sidhanta (Astronomy)

Harshacharita
Banabhatta
Priyadarshika; Ratnavali; and Nagananda (plays)
Harshavardhana
Astadhyayi
Panini
Mahabhashika
Patanjali
Suryasiddhanta
A treatise on astronomy. Authorship disputed.
Brihatsamhita
Varahmira (5th CE)
Sushrutsamhita
Sushrut (2nd CE)
Charaksamhita
Charak (2nd CE)

Travelers
Traveler
During time of
Work
Megasthenes (ambassador of Seleucus)
Chandragupta Maurya
Indika
Fa Hein
Chandragupta Vikramaditya

Hsuan Tsang
Harshavardhana


Pliny wrote Naturalis Historia

Philosophy

Six schools
School
Philosophy
Major proponent
Samkhaya
Materialistic. No god. Later turned spiritualistic. Prakriti-Purusha. Salvation through knowledge acquired through pratyaksha, anumana, shabda
Kapila
Yoga
Slavation through meditation and physical application

Nyaya
System of logic. Salvation through acquisition of knowledge.

Vaisheshika
Discussion of material elements or dravya. Atom theory. (beginning of physics). Belief in god.

Mimansa
Vedas contain the eternal truth. Reasoning provided for vedic rituals. Perform vedic rites for salvation.

Vedanta
Brahmasutra. Brahma is the reality. Atma is identical with Brahma.
Shankara (Advaita) – born in Kerala
Ramanuja (Vishistadvaita)
Shuddhadvaita (Vallabha)



Lokayata
Materialistic philosophy.
Charavaka


 

Mauryan officers

Rajukas – a class of officers appointed by Ashoka for administration of justice
Dhammamahamatras – officers of Ashoka for propagating dharma among various social groups
Tirthas – important functionaries
Samaharta – highest officer for tax assessment
Sannidhata – chief custodian of the state treasury
Sangam literature
·         Sangam was an assembly of Tamil poets held under royal patronage in Madurai
·         Compiled around 300-600 AD
·         Can be divided into two groups: narrative and didactic
·         Narrative: Melkanakku (or Eighteen Major Works)
·         Didactic: Kilkanakku (Eighteen minor works)
·         Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are Tamil epics

Misc
·         Shataka was a special type of cloth made at Mathura
·         Artisan guilds were called shrents
·         Uttarapatha was a sea route most frequently in use
·         Gomat – wealthy person

Guptas

·         After the fall of Kushans and Satvahanas in mid 3rd century AD
·         Perhaps of Vaishya origin
·         Chandragupta 1- Samudragupta – Chandragupta II – Kumargupta - Skandagupta
·         Capital: Patliputra
·         Chandragupta I
o   Started the Gupta era in AD 319-20
·         Samudragupta (aka Napoleon of India)
o   Delighted  in violence and conquest
o   Court poet: Harishena
·         Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) [375-415 AD]
o   Exercised indirect influence over the Central Indian kingdom of Prabhavati through his daughter
o   Ujjain was his second  capital
o   Navratnas
o   Kalidasa, Varahmira and Amarsimha were at his court
o   Fa-hsien visited India
·         Royal seal: Garuda
·         Decline in long distance trade
·         Emergence of priestly landlords
·         Position of shudras improved
·         Subordination of women
·         Buddhism did not receive royal patronage
·         Golden age of ancient India
o   Ajanta Paintings <not by Guptas but mostly during their period>
o   Nalanda university flourished
o   13 plays written by Bhasa
o   Mrichchhakatika – Shudraka
o   Kalidasa
o   Plays were mostly comic
o   Ramayana and Mahabharata compiled
o   Development of Sanskrit Grammar
o   Aryabhatiya – Aryabhatta
o   Romaka Sidhanta – book on astronomy
·         Was poor in architecture
·         Huna invasion made the empire weak
Vishti – forced labour by peasants for the army officials

Harshavardhana

·         After the fall of Guptas
·         Capital: Kanauj
·         Banabhatta: court poet (wrote Harshacharita)
·         Ran the administration on similar lines as Guptas
·         Law and order: not well maintained
·         Nalanda flourished as a centre of Buddhist learning
·         Became a great parton of Buddhism (was a Shaiva earlier)
·         Convened a grand assembly as Kanauj to widely publicise the doctrines of Mahayana
·         Authored three dramas: Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda
·