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Tamil Nadu



Tamil Nadu

Governor:Surjit Singh Bernala
Chief Minister:M. Karunanidhi
Capital: Chennai
Legislature: Unicameral
Lok Sabha seats: 39
Judicature: Chennai High Court
Languages: Tamil
Population density: 478/sq km
No. of districts: 31
Main crops: Rice, maize, pulses, sugarcane,
oilseeds, cotton, coffee, tea, rubber, tobacco, groundnut,
coconut, pepper, cashewnuts
Rivers: Cauvery, Palar, Cheyyar, Ponnaiyar, Myer, Bhavani, Amarvati,
Vaigai, Chittar
Minerals: Limestone, mica, bauxite, lignite, gypsum, chromite, uranium,
thorium, magnesite
Industries: Textiles, fertilisers, paper, automobiles, bicycles, cement,
sugar, iron and steel
Airports:Chennai, Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Coimbatore and Salem

PHYSICAL FEATURES
Tamil Nadu is divided between the flat areas along the eastern coast and the hilly regions in the north and west. The Kavery delta is the broadest part of the eastern plains, with the arid plains of Ramanathapuram and Madurai towards the south. The Western Ghats run along the state’s western border, while the lower hills of the Eastern Ghats run through the centre.

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
South India had remained under the hegemony of the Cholas, the Cheras and the Pandyas for centuries. The Pallavas held supremacy from about the second quarter of the fourth century AD. They were the originators of the famous Dravidian style of temple architecture. The last Pallava ruler was Aparajita in whose reign the later Cholas under Vijayalaya and Aditya asserted themselves by about the 10th century. At the end of the 11th century, Tamil Nadu was ruled by several dynasties like the Chalukyas, Cholas and Pandyas. In the two centuries that followed, the imperial Cholas gained paramountacy over South India. During 14th century, the Vijayanagar Kingdom quickly consolidated itself and extended its sway over the whole of South India and at the close of the century; Vijayanagar became the supreme power in South. However, it crumbled at the battle of Talikota in 1564 to the confederate forces of the Deccan Sultans. The Portuguese, the Dutch, the French and the English came in quick succession and established trading centres known as ‘Factories’. East India Company which had established their factory at Masulipatnam, now in Andhra Pradesh, in 1611 gradually annexed territories by encouraging enmity among the native rulers. Tamil Nadu was one of the first of British settlements in India. The State is the successor to the old Madras Presidency which in 1901 covered the bulk of the southern peninsula. The composite Madras State was later reorganised and the present Tamil Nadu was formed.

POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS

1953 – Telegu speaking areas of Madras state were carved out into the state of Andhra Pradesh.

1956 – Madras state was further divided into the states of Kerala, Mysore and Madras

August 1968 – Madras state was renamed Tamil Nadu