GAGAN (GPS-aided geo-augmented navigation)

The GPS aided geo augmented navigation or GPS and geo-augmented navigation system (GAGAN) is a planned implementation of a regional satellite-based augmentation system (SBAS) by the Indian government. It is a system to improve the accuracy of a GNSS receiver by providing reference signals.

गगन से जुड़ेंगे भारतीय हवाई अड्डे
तिरुचिरापल्ली, एजेंसी : विमान संचालन में सुरक्षा और इसकी दक्षता बढ़ाने के उद्देश्य से देश के सभी महत्वपूर्ण हवाई अड्डों को उपग्रह आधारित सुविधा गगन (जीपीएस एडेड जिओ आगमेंटेड नेवीगेशन सिस्टम) जोड़ा जाएगा। भारतीय विमानपत्तन प्राधिकरण के एक वरिष्ठ अधिकारी के अनुसार यह काम जून 2013 तक पूरा हो जाएगा। हवाई अड्डों को जीपीएस से जोड़ने वाला भारत, जापान, अमेरिका और यूरोपीय समूह के बाद विश्व का महज चौथा देश होगा। एयर नेवीगेशन सेवाओं के सदस्य वी सोमसुंदरम ने बताया कि ग्लोबल पोजिशनिंग सिस्टम (जीपीएस) से लैस गगन हवाई ,यातायात प्रबंधन को बेहतर बनाने के अलावा हवाई जहाज की समय पर जानकारी, मौसम संबंधी सूचना आदि मुहैया कराने में भी सहायक होगा। मालूम हो कि गगन भारतीय विमानपत्तन प्राधिकरण और इसरो का संयुक्त उद्यम है। गगन लगाने के लिए इसरो के दिशा-निर्देश में विमानपत्तन प्राधिकरण ने देश के 15 महत्वपूर्ण स्थानों पर रेफरेंस स्टेशन भी स्थापित कर चुका है। इसके माध्यम से ही देश के सभी हवाई अड्डों को भविष्य में जोड़ा जाएगा। हालांकि राष्ट्रीय गगन केंद्र बेंगलूर में होगा। सोमसुंदरम ने बताया कि इस प्रणाली की मदद से वायु यातायात नियंत्रण कक्ष और विमान कॉकपिट में नेवीगेशन के लिए मानवीय हस्तक्षेप को भी कम या समाप्त किया जाएगा। हवाई यातायात के अलावा गगन का इस्तेमाल रेलवे, भूगर्भ सर्वेक्षण और पुरातत्व सर्वेक्षण आदि में किया जा सकता है।

The Rs. 7.74 billion (774 crore) project is being implemented in three phases through 2008 by the Airport Authority of India with the help of the Indian Space Research Organization's (ISRO) technology and space support. The goal is to provide navigation system for all phases of flight over the Indian airspace and in the adjoining area. It is applicable to safety-to-life operations, and meets the performance requirements of international civil aviation regulatory bodies. The final, operational phase of GAGAN is likely to be completed by May 2011. Gagan is a Hindi word of Sanskrit origin for the sky. The ground segment for GAGAN, which has been put up by the U.S. company Raytheon, has 15 reference stations scattered across the country. Two mission control centres, along with associated uplink stations, have been set up at Kundalahalli in Bangalore. One more control centre and uplink station are to come up at Delhi.

The space component for it will become available after the GAGAN payload on the GSAT-8 communication satellite, which was launched recently, is switched on. This payload was also on the GSAT-4 satellite that was lost when the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) failed during launch in April 2010. Two more satellites carrying the same payload are to be launched in the coming years.

The Indian government has stated that it intends to use the experience of creating the GAGAN system to enable the creation of an autonomous regional navigation system called the Indian Regional Navigational Satellite System (IRNSS) and that it might use the GSAT-4 satellite as a technology demonstration system phase of the proposed navigational system


To begin implementing an SBAS over the Indian airspace, Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) codes for L1 frequency and L5 frequency were obtained from the United States Air Force and U.S Department of Defense on November 2001 and March 2005. The system will use eight reference stations located in Delhi, Guwahati, Kolkata, Ahmedabad, Thiruvananthapuram, Bangalore, Jammu and Port Blair, and a master control center at Bangalore. US defense contractor Raytheon has stated they will bid to build the system.


The first GAGAN transmitter was integrated into the GSAT-4 geostationary satellite, and had a goal of being operational in 2008. Following a series of delays, GSAT-4 was launched on 15 April 2010, however it failed to reach orbit after the third stage of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mk.II that was carrying it malfunctioned. The project involves establishment of 15 Indian Reference Stations, three Indian Navigation Land Uplink Stations, three Indian Mission Control Centers and installation of all associated software and communication links. GAGAN is planned to get into operation by the year 2014. It will be able to help pilots to navigate in the Indian airspace by an accuracy of 3 Mts. This will be helpful for landing aircraft in tough weather and terrain like Mangalore airport and Leh.

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